“ A learning in which the future probability of behavior is affected by its consequence” is called operant conditioning. With operant condition there is a lot of trial and error which is called the Law of effect. This is something that without realizing it, I used everyday. For example, my 15 month old, he is in the stage where he is developing his personality and is becoming more active. With him becoming more active I need to teach and shape him in what is right and what is wrong especially with his behavior. Anytime he does something something positive I encourage him and praise him that it positive and is right. When he does something that is negative, he is discouraged and is told that it is wrong and some type of punishment.
There is a lot of trial and error and consequences when trying to teach my little one. For example, after taking every toy out and having it on the floor it eventually becomes clean up time. As he cleans up he is praised that he is doing a good job cleaning up and then he can have a yummy snack. If he does not clean up, he has learned that he will not get rewarded with a yummy snack.
Honey, P., Powell, R., & Symbaluk, D. G. (2016). Introduction to learning and behavior (5th ed.). CENGAGE Learning Custom Publishing.