Friday, June 22, 2018

these are some variations of examples  of positive and negative punishment from th Disney movie Frozen and the best movie of all the time Lion King. Punishmen is used to help decrease the probability that a specific undesired behavior will occur with the delivery of a consequence immediately after the undesired response/behavior is exhibited. When people hear that punishment procedures are being used, they typically think that something wrong or harmful is being done, but that is not necessarily the case. positive punishment works by presenting a negative consequence after an undesired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior less likely to happen in the future. and negative punishment hen a certain desired stimulus/item is removed after a particular undesired behavior is exhibited, resulting in the behavior happening less often in the future.  As you'll see in the video, when Simba was talking discouragingly about his past, Rafki hit him on the head which will act as a reinforcer for Simba to not talk that way again. In Frozen when Elsa uses her powers in front of Anna, Elsa accidentally hurts Anna and then is afraid to ever use her powers in front of her sister again.https://youtu.be/QeNGYdUZFQI?t=43s


Thursday, June 21, 2018

Social Learning Theory

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mhe6p3Xkzt0

Social Learning Theory- the view people learn by observing others. I shared a video clip from the movie, Big Daddy, to show an example of social learning theory. You develop behaviors, views, and attitudes from social context. In this clip, you see how the little boy develops the same behavior as his mentor. Who does inappropriate behavior that feeds off to the little kid. Psychologist, Albert Bandura, assimilted two theories into four different requirements for learning - observation (environmental), retention (cognitive), reproduction (cognitive), and motivation (both).

Operant Conditioning

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZi92OEbaqs

Above is a clip of example of operant conditioning from Big Bang Theory. Operant conditioning is a type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences. In this example, anytime Sheldon went to go do something and finish, she would make sure she stopped him before he could do so.

Positive Reinforcement

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ppjlFyGbHTU




Positive Reinforcement- Using a reinforcing stimulus to help behavior to occur repeatedly in the future.

For a personal example of positive reinforcement for me, I work in a school and also provide in-home  ABA therapy sessions with children on the spectrum. Positive reinforcement is a major part of ABA therapy, when a behavior occurs that is appropriate, children will be rewarded with a reinforcement  of their desire. That is also in ever day life. Children do their chores, they will be rewarded with allowance. Children finish their homework, they will be rewarded with their iPAD. We encourage positive reinforcement as a motivator for correct appropriate behavior to occur again in near future. It is for children to know that when they are doing the right thing, they will be rewarded with their favorite things, so therefore, they will continue to do so in the future.

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

Reflexes

A reflex is an automatic response to a stimulus. They include anything from blinking in response to a puff of air or turning in response to a strange noise behind you. All of the reflexes that we have are basically linked to survival. When babies are born, they have a multitude of reflexes that help them to survive. In order to eat, the rooting and sucking reflexes occur. Rooting guides the baby to find its mother’s breast or its bottle. Once it has found where its food will be coming from, the sucking reflex begins. The sucking reflex often doesn’t begin in utero until about the 32nd week and isn’t fully developed until the 36th week. For some infants that are born premature, this reflex can be weakened. Most of the primitive reflexes seen in infancy disappear as time goes on, but others such as vomiting and salivating remain.


Positive and Negative Punishment

Here are some examples of positive and negative punishment from Frozen and the Lion King. Punishment can be defined as when a person engages in a behavior that has an immediate consequence which decreases the likelihood of them repeating that behavior. As you'll see in the video, when Simba was talking discouragingly about his past, Rafki hit him on the head which will act as a reinforcer for Simba to not talk that way again. In Frozen when Elsa uses her powers in front of Anna, Elsa accidentally hurts Anna and then is afraid to ever use her powers in front of her sister again.

Tuesday, June 19, 2018

Classical and Operant Conditioning

Here is a good example of operant conditioning in Disney movies. Operant Conditioning is when specific consequences are associated with a specific behavior. In the video an example of a positive reinforcement. Cinderella is told that she can go to the ball if she does all her chores. The ball is the stimulus and the chores are the behavior.

Sunday, June 17, 2018

Operant Conditioning

Operant conditioning has always been one of my favorite components of psychology because it was always simple to understand, yet so interesting. This is the learned method that occurs with punishment and rewards for behavior. Operant conditioning is in many TV shows. In the clip I provided the show Ed, Edd n Eddy had an example of operant conditioning. The boys were stuck with bandages and once the had shown foul behavior, the bandage was ripped off to inflict a punishment of pain. The boys learned soon to be on their best behavior and reinforced proper social behavior by the end of the scene.

Learned Behavior: Imprinting, Habituation and Conditioning

https://study.com/academy/lesson/learned-behavior-imprinting-habituation-and-conditioning.html

I've always been interested in building and breaking habits. Sometimes they seem like such simple things to do, but anyone who has struggled with breaking a bad or unwanted habit would know that that is far from the truth. Habit and conditioning is a process that takes a lot of time and patience and is definitely not something that is fostered over night. Learned behaviors are behaviors that are learned over a period of time. Over this period of time the repetition of these behaviors form a habit.

Friday, June 15, 2018

Rescorla-Wagner Model




Classical conditioning is a vast part of psychology with many underlying models and components. It is defined as the learning process that involves learning a new behavior when two stimuli are paired. The Rescorla-Wagner model is a model that uses the associations between unconditioned stimuli and conditioned stimuli. The model is simple in saying that the CS will predict the US if the association is strong. Once the person has been presented with the CS, they will be less surprised the more it’s repeated. The US will not be as a surprise or shock as it was when the first time it was shown. I had a bit of a hard time grasping the thought of this until I watched this youtube video, although very silly, it gets the point across short and sweet. 

Punishment/ Reinforcement

When reading about positive and negative punishment/reinforcement, I found myself getting confused very quickly. I was thinking of the terms too literally for how we use them in everyday life. Punishment sounds something of a negative experience all the time. However, in pysch terms, punishment is a consequence that follows a behavior that will likely decrease that behavior from happening in the future. Continued, reinforcement is a behavior that would likely increase that probability that a specific behavior would happen in the future. When something is added there is a positive tacked on to the name. When something is removed, negative is placed in front. Here are some examples:
Positive Punishment: Child touches hot iron and feels pain.
Negative Punishment: Child fighting with brother and has favorite toy taken away to make him stop.
Positive Reinforcement: Child receiving money for good grades.
Negative Reinforcement: Child pressing alarm button to shut off loud noise.

Thursday, June 14, 2018

Spontaneous Recovery

Spontaneous recovery is an interesting part of psychology, and can be quite difficult to understand. Spontaneous recovery happens after part of an instinctual routine is eliminated or exterminated but returns after a few days. There can be many examples of this, one being a person who has the flu. Everyday this person may wake up, eat breakfast, and then go to school. While having the flu, there may be some difficultly trying to do these tasks so they may wake up, not eat, and eventually just go back to bed. After a few short days they will begin to feel better, and eventually will go back to their normal routine. This is the spontaneous recovery of the routine that they know and have to endure everyday, and one that flu leaves them they will go on to doing it again. The video also explains how a smoker can also endure the same thing, and feel the need for a cigarette years after the extinction of that behavior.

Classical conditioning

I always found classical conditioning to be one the of the most interesting things that could happen unknowingly to someone in their life. Classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone. One thing that I found interesting was that they actually formed an episode of the simpsons based on classical conditioning. Classical conditioning was used by Lisa to see if she could cause her brother and a hamster to have the same response. By giving them a shook when they touch food, or in Bart's case a cupcake, they became afraid of these things. It was cool to see that a psychological perspective could be done in a TV show, and allow for the average watcher to understand without having to know about classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is such an amazing thing, and is interesting to see how the mind can think and do different things based on different stimulus. 

Doll Test

When reading all the chapters in the book, it is easily seen that learning can take place in different fashions. While reading I was reminded of an experiment that I had learned about in my sociology class that did play a role in our material. It was called the doll test, and it was done on a group of children and they would have to say which doll was the pretty doll or the nice doll, and the doll was either black or white. We can see by this experiment how much observational learning plays a part in a child's life. They pick up these negative thoughts based on the places they live, or maybe even by observing their parents displaying these negative thoughts. Observational learning is a huge part of Bandura's social learning theory and can be seen all throughout this test. 




Monday, June 11, 2018

Vervet Monkey Alarm Call

When reading the chapter comparative cognition I found it interesting when they were talking about the Vervet money and the alarm calls. I found a video on YouTube about the different calls that they have. If they see a hawk they run for the middle of the tree,  a snake they stand on their back legs, and scan the area and if they see a leopard they get in the trees. In the video it explains they have different calls for different predators, for instance,  when they see a leopard it is a much higher pitch sound then for the snake or hawk, and the snake is a higher pitch then the hawk. I found it interesting that they can distinguish between the sounds and know what to do when facing danger. This shows that animals do communicate and have their own language.

Operant Conditioning in Disney Movies

I always liked Disney movies and I have never noticed that they used operant conditioning. In the video they use positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment. The movies that they talk about are Toy Story, Cinderella, Inside Out, and Lion King. This video made me think about other movies that use operant conditioning, and when I watch another movie I will try to notice these little things. Cinderella uses positive reinforcement by if Cinderella does her chores she gets to go to the ball. Toy Story uses negative reinforcement by how Woody removes Buzz so that Andy will continue his behavior in choosing Woody to play with. Lion King uses positive punishment by when Rafiki hits Simba on the head from stopping Simba from thinking about the past. Inside Out uses negative punishment by Riley's dad taking away dessert to stop her from crying about eating broccoli. This video made me understand reinforcement and punishment better and the differences between positive and negative.

Thursday, June 7, 2018

Little Albert What happened to him

When I first learned about Little Albert when learning about fear I wondered what happened to him. In one of the chapters in the book it talks about fears and phobias and how the experiment they did on him, but it didn't talk about what happened later when the experiment was over. We know that he had a fear of white things, but you don't know how it affected him later in life. I found a video on YouTube which explains the experiment and also what might have happened to him. In the video I learned that Watson never did a follow up on Albert, he burned all of his findings, and that he never publicly revealed who Little Albert was. In 2010, they found who Little Albert was and unfortunately he died at age 6, and he was most likely still afraid of white things.

Wednesday, June 6, 2018

Bandura's Social Learning Theory

Bandura's theory on social learning can be traced to Hull's neobehaviorism because he learned from theories of Hull in graduate school. The term social learning theory was first used by theorists that were following Hull's ideas. These theorists connected Hull's concepts of human social behaviors to imitation. Bandura was very interested in learning more about imitation, that he became another researcher on the topic. Bandura's thoughts on imitation included that we have expectations for ourselves and that strongly influences out behaviors. He also believed that cognitive variables and observational learning helps us grow and learn as individuals. Bandura was more interested on studying children and aggressive behaviors and that is why he did the study of the Bobo dolls. The results of that study showed that children are more aggressive when they saw their parents having aggressive behaviors towards the doll. Children learn through imitation from their parents and other people they may look up to. This theory is still important and used today on children. 

Image result for bobo doll experiment
Youtube video of Bandura's Bobo doll experiment: 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjTxQy_U3ac

References: Powell, R. A., Symbaluk, D.G., & Honey, L, P. (2002) Introduction to Learning and Behavior (Fourth Edition ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning. 

Monday, June 4, 2018

Treating Phobias

Treating Phobias 

Treating phobias is very difficult to accomplish. A phobia is a irrational fear or a strong dislike of something. Some examples of phobias are fears of spiders, heights, crowded spaces, flying, elevators, public transportation, and so on. There are ways to treat phobias such as systematic desensitization, and flooding. Systematic desensitization is a way to treat a phobia by paring relaxation and a succession of stimuli which stops the fear. Wolpe founded this treatment and it consists of three steps. The first step is training in relaxation which is a deep muscle relaxation. The second step consists of showing the person with the fear several picture staring with a picture that causes the least amount of anxiety up to the most. The final step includes pairing each picture with relaxation. The process starts with the least fearful picture while including relaxation, then continues all the way to the most fearful to eliminate the anxiety all together. 
Another way to treat a phobia is by a treatment called flooding. Flooding is a long exposure to the feared stimulus by the client so the fear will decrease quickly. The client in treatment will first visualize their fear and practice visualizing it at home. An example of this would be if a person is afraid of balloons, they would have to think of a balloon in the room. The next step would include the person with the fear actually encountering the situation. An example is the person with the balloon fear having to go into a room with balloons and pop them. This is a quicker treatment of extinguishing a phobia and it might not work for everyone. These are some ways to treat several phobias. 

Related image

Youtube video of systematic desensitization:                                                
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n4m2NJlJVuc 

Youtube video of flooding: 
https://www.youtube.com/watchv=wo_h3eRHqWQ

References: Powell, R. A., Symbaluk, D. G., & Honey, L. P. (2002). Introduction to Learning and Behavior (Fourth Edition ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth/ Thompson Learning. 

Sunday, June 3, 2018

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning 

Classical conditioning occurs in learning when a neutral stimulus correlates with a stimulus and causes a behavior. A Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov came up with this theory after he noticed the dogs salivating every time the lab technicians entered the room. He realized that the dogs salivated when the lab technicians entered the room, because they knew they were getting fed. Pavlov then associated the time the dogs ate and rang a bell every time they were about to be fed. Overtime, the dogs salivated to the ring of the bell. The unconditioned response is something that causes a natural response, in this case it would be the dogs food. The unconditioned response occurs naturally after the unconditioned stimulus. The unconditioned response is the salvation of the dogs. The conditioned response is the desired response and it is the dogs salivating to the bell ringing in Pavlov's experiment and the learned behavior by the dogs. This research by Pavlov showed people how to understand learning.

Image result for picture of pavlov dogs



Here is a youtube video of another example of classical conditioning from the show The Office!
                                   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XYgY-Y4NoLo


Reference:
[Author removed at request of original publisher]. (2015, October 26). Introduction to Psychology. Retrieved from http://open.lib.umn.edu/intropsyc/chapter/7-1-learning-by-accociation-classical-conditioning/