Reinforcers and Punishers Related to PTSD
Some people know about the different types of reinforcers and punishers, and how're they're used in psychology. But some people may not know about the long term effects of the usage of these. Both reinforcers and punishers follow a behavior in attempt to either increase or decrease it. Positive reinforcers present a stimulus following a response, that leads to increase of future strength of that response. This is usually pleasant or rewarding. Positive punishment is where the presentation of a stimulus leads to a decrease in future strength of that response. Negative reinforcer is the removal of another stimulus following the response to lead to an increase of future strength. A negative punisher is the removal of a stimulus following a response, which then leads to a decrease in the future strength of that response.
Something that people don't typically think about is whether this can affect the child's thought process (if you're using this to raise a child) or actions in the future. According to surveys, post traumatic stress disorder symptoms are strongly related to negative reinforcement. Which is used as an escape behavior resulting in the termination of the aversive stimulus. The first link below shows the connection between negative reinforcers and post traumatic stress disorder. The link below that talks about some behavioral interventions for the trauma.