Thursday, June 25, 2020
The Premack Principle
Chimps and American Sign Language
Positive and Negative Reinforcement
Both of these reinforcements can be beneficial depending on your situation. For example, if you're a teacher and you have a student that does well on a paper and you want her to continue to put forth the same effort, you will praise that student individually on how well she did on the paper. this would be considered positive reinforcement. an opposite situation would be if a student did not do their homework but you want them to do it in the future, for that specific homework assignment you will give them a zero to encourage them to actually do their work the next time. this would be considered negative reinforcement.
Blog Post 2- Escape, Avoidance and Punishment
Theory Of Mind
Theory of mind is an important social-cognitive skill that involves the ability to think about mental states, both your own as well as others. Developing this skill gives us the ability to understand that other individuals thoughts and beliefs may be different from your own and consider the factors that have led them to the mental state that they’re in. We evolve skills that help us attribute mental states, including emotions, desires, beliefs, and knowledge.
In order to interact with others, it is important to be able to apply your existing knowledge to your current situation. Along with having the capability to connect what's going on in someone else's head to infer their intentions which influence their actions. This includes hopes, fears, beliefs, and expectations. Some social interactions can be more complex than others which can lead to misunderstandings, but once you have a firm grip on your bearings then you are able to respond accordingly. This part of a child’s developmental process is vital.
Theory of mind can be enhanced by opportunities such as:
to engage in rich pretend play;
to talk about people’s thoughts, wants, and feelings, and the reasons why they act the way they do.
to hear and talk about stories, especially those involving surprises, secrets, tricks, and mistakes, that invite children to see things from different points of view (for example, Red Riding Hood doesn’t know that the wolf is dressed up as grandma).
This video is an example of the false belief test:
Fixed Action Pattern
Extrinsic and Intrinsic
Motivated Behavior is typically driven by one of two forms of motivation.
Extrinsic- motivated to perform an activity by gaining a reward and avoiding punishment.
Extrinsic comes from within.
Intrinsic- motivated to perform and activity due to your own personal reward, goal and/or interest.
Intrinsic comes from outside forces.
( Both are derived from some type of incentive. )
Classical versus Operant Conditioning
During Classical conditioning, behavior is involuntary and inflexible. The behavior is elicited by the stimulus. Conditioning deals with stimulus-responce. During Operant conditioning ,the behavior is voluntary and flexible. The behavior also is emitted by the organism. This type of conditioning deals with a stimulus-responce, just like Operant Conditioning. This conditioning usually does not involve patterns of behavior that are innate.
Pavlovs Classical Conditioning
Pavlov's Classical Conditioning:
Classical conditioning is thinking by interaction and has been developed by Pavlov. In basic words , two inputs are connected together to produce a new acquired reaction in a human or animal. There are three stages of classical conditioning which are Before Conditioning, During Conditioning and After Conditioning
Negative reinforcement is a term described by B.F. Skinner in his theory of operant conditioning. He explains it as a response or behavior that is strengthened by stopping, removing, or avoiding a negative outcome or aversive stimulus.
Think of this reinforcement as something being subtracted from the situation.
Negative reinforcement uses two different types of behaviors: escape and avoidance.
In escape behavior the occurrence of the behavior terminates the aversive stimulus. Where in avoidance behavior, the occurrence of the behavior prevents the presentation of an aversive stimulus.
Both escape and avoidance are types of negative reinforcement, both result in an increase of the behavior that terminated or avoided the aversive stimulus. Both create emotional responses that say, phew, thank god that is over.
This reinforcement is seen most effective when reinforcers are presented immediately following a behavior. When a long period elapses between the behavior and the reinforcer, the response is likely to be weaker.
For example, with animals the beep on the shock collar before the shock. The dog is now aware of what that noise means due to its conditioning history that the beep predicts pain if the current behavior continues.
Example of Negative reinforcement in the show Big Bang Theory:
Self-Awareness and Differentiating Self From Others
There is a self-awareness test called mark and mirror task designed by Gordon Gallup, an animal behaviorist, and Beulah Amsterdam, a clinical child psychologist. This test was invented to understand the ability to see oneself as separate from others. Both researchers knew that young children and apes had a liking for mirrors, but were curious if they were using them for the same purpose.
We are not innately self-aware. Once we develop this state of mind we gain the ability to notice our traits, behaviors, and feelings. Changing our focus and applying our attention to ourselves. Allowing us to achieve differentiation so we can truly understand our experience and learn from situations in our environment with people we are connected to.
Quote from Gordon Gallup:
“Once you can become the object of your own attention, and you can begin to think about yourself, you can use your experience to infer comparable experiences in others.”
It is found that both humans and animals develop self recognition before the age of 3.
Video explaining Gordon Gallup mark and mirror task:
Blog Post 1- Classical Conditioning: Underlying Processes and Practical Aplications
Schedules of Reinforcement
Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura's social learning theory acknowledges other behaviorist learning theories such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning. However, he adds behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning and that mediating processes occur between stimuli & responses. As the book states, "Bandura was very much interested in imitation, which he referred to as observational learning. It strongly emphasizes the importance of observational learning and cognitive variables in explaining human behavior." Bandura's social learning theory is especially applicable to children's development. Children are surrounded by many influential models, such as parents within the family, characters on children’s TV, friends within their peer group and teachers at school. They pick up behavior from their environment which is why it is important for those models to display behavior they wish to see in their children.
Wednesday, June 24, 2020
However, treatment can help someone develop better eating habits and take away the complications of anxiety. Some of the symptoms include really thin appearance, fatigue, extreme weight loss, low blood pressure, dehydration.
Opponent Process Theory
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
3.1% of the U.S. population is affected by this disorder, but there are treatments as well. There is no known cause of being affected by it, but stressful things in life such as experiences and family issues can play a role in it. People with this disorder find it hard to stop worrying, that it may affect their ability to carry on throughout the day. As mentioned in the youtube video, for these people who have the disorder, the stress is always there.
Social Learning Theory
Tuesday, June 23, 2020
Learned Industriousness Theory and secondary reinforcement post #3
Monday, June 22, 2020
Habituation and ADHD
While looking up a few things, I found a study on children with ADHD and a possible impairment in habituation. The objective was "to investigate whether children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder show impaired habituation to peripheral stimuli." the study was proven true in their conclusion stating their results showed children with ADHD have impaired visual habituation and contributes to off-task behaviors in children with ADHD.
Saturday, June 20, 2020
Post 3 | Classical Conditioning
Pavlovian Conditioning or Classical Conditioning is a type of adapted realization that happens due to the subject's natural reactions, instead of operate molding, which is dependent upon the unshakable activities of the subject. It impacted the way of thinking in brain research known as behaviorism. This was found by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning procedure that happens through relationships between an ecological stimulus and a natural occurring stimulus.
- There are three phases:
- Before Conditioning: an unconditioned stimulus is combined with an unconditioned reaction. An unbiased boost is then presented.
- During Conditioning: this involves combining a neutral stimulus with a unconditioned stimulus.
Soon after, the unbiased stimulus will become the conditioned stimulus.
- After Conditioning: The conditioned stimulus is will set off the conditioned response.
Friday, June 19, 2020
Post 2 | Matching Law
The Matching Law is said to be the most significant contending logical record of decision behavior. It sees decision not only as a solitary occasion or an inward procedure of the creature yet as a pace of discernible occasions after some time. It expresses that as opposed to augmenting utility, the living being apportions its conduct over different exercises in definite extent to the worth got from every movement. It contrasts very subtle, yet essentially from sound decision hypothesis in its forecasts of how individuals strive control, for instance, how they conclude whether to swear off quick joys for bigger yet deferred rewards. It gives, through the way of hedonism theory, an amazing clarification of liquor and opiate habit. It can likewise be utilized to clarify natural marvels, for example, hereditary determination and scavenging conduct, just as monetary dynamic.
The Matching law is hypothetically significant for two reasons. To start with, it offers a straightforward measurement of conduct which is fit for augmentation to various different circumstances. Secondly, it seems to offer a legitimate, prescient record of decision. It consequently challenges any thought of free will. This test is just genuine if the extent of the coordinating law can be reached out to people.
It can also be expressed in the form of an equation as shown below.
Post 1 | The Bobo Doll Study
A Canadian-American Psychologist by the name of Albert Bandura conducted a study called the Bobo Doll Experiment. This study on aggression was made to demonstrate how children imitate behavior through the observation of adults.
The information in the experiment suggests that guys are to some degree increasingly inclined to copy physical animosity—an exceptionally manly composed conduct—than are females, with male subjects repeating more physical hostility than female subjects; there were, notwithstanding, no distinctions in the impersonation of verbal animosity, which is less sex-composed. Also, both male and female subjects were more imitative of the male conduct models than of the female models as far as physical hostility yet were progressively imitative of the equivalent sex models as far as verbal animosity.
- Original Bobo Doll Experiment Video : https://youtu.be/zerCK0lRjp8
Wednesday, June 17, 2020
Shaping in Operant Conditioning
Fixed Action Pattern
The Time Out Strategy (Chapter 9)
- Done in isolation
- Administered calmly
- Administered without repeated warnings
- Praised when completed
- Followed by a return to the task that was interrupted by misbehavior and timeout
Obsessive Complusive Disorder in Children
Behaviorism strategies for the classroom
Tuesday, June 16, 2020
Clever Hans and Maggie
Pavlov's Classical Conditioning
Saturday, June 13, 2020
Behaviorism and Cognitivism post #2
Thursday, June 11, 2020
Food Aversions vs Picky Eating
Food Aversion vs Picking Eating
Some of the other behaviors listed include rudeness in the workplace (which can explain why some workplaces have a reputation of chronic rudeness while others do not), the feeling of being cold, and taking risks.
7 Behaviors That Are Actually Contagious
Monday, June 8, 2020
Coronavirus & Xenophobia
This article talks about how this whole coronavirus pandemic may have caused us to see a real life version of phobias. According to the article, there has been an increase of xenophobia. This makes sense because of the origin of the virus. I have even seen in my own community. The amount of precaution I see in customers in Shop Rite vs the Asian Supermarket is drastically different. It's not like every Asians person we see is infected with the Coronavirus, and even so- if you do not come into close contact and follow the CDC guidelines, you should be fine. This makes me wonder how long it will take before people will be able to treat Asians as normal people as opposed to disease infected rats again.
Here is a video related to this:
There's something spreading faster than the coronavirus...racism | USA TODAY