The question at hand in chapter 14 is whether previous physiologists and philosophers' view of perception as a fundamentally psychological function remains reliable or if the cognitive neuroscience of today has made definitive answers to these questions. The first to come close to the truth about the eye was astronomer, Johannes Kepler. He used optical instruments, which guided his conclusion that the lens, an anatomical structure of the eye, bends rays of light from any object and casts an image of the object on the eyeball. The subsequent nerve impulses are then sent to the brain for integration. This basic understanding of the eye brought upon new principles of the structure. Although our natural assumption and common sense says perception is contact with reality, physicists say this is only half true in reference to colors and illusions. In fact, the individual ways in which we process accumulated data of visual recognition was eventually given a name by perception researchers. The concept of bottom-up, top-down processing describes an individual's viewpoint as they make sense of what they are seeing. The difference between the intake of information lies at the level of experience; whether the mind has to assemble bits and pieces of the visual to make sense of it, which uses higher levels of recognition or whether context leads the way to stored memory, which uses perception on a lower level. The consequences of the concept caused the theory of information processing to rise, as it was the solution to understanding how the mind handles incoming sensory material and sparked the interest of cognitive studies of perception in the field of psychology.
Hi Adore, I really enjoyed your post. It took me a minute to see that are two images in the black and white picture with the face. At first I was only seeing the lady's face then I refocused my eyes and was able to see the man with the instrument. I often get confused when learning about bottom-up and top-down processing. However, after reading your post I have a better understanding of what it means in relation to perception.