The Personality Psychologists: Chapter 11 The purpose of this chapter is to identify the ways in which early psychologists measured personalities versus the approach of modern psychologists. Physiognomy, phrenology, the humoral theory of temperament were three of the first techniques practiced, as an approach to distinguish individual personalities. The goal of early psychologists in this century was to find a way to measure personality quickly and precisely with quantitative measurements. The first concept of personality measurement that fit this criteria was the Personal Data Sheet. Although this test was rushed, primitive, and limited, Woodworth’s test had set a pattern in terms of personality questionnaires. Moving ahead in time, the MMPI had been a “yes” or “no” questionnaire that was used for over half a century but there were implications concerning its format, as the overly revealing responses required were unfavorable. The viewpoint of Dr. Harrison Gough is what brought the CPI into existence, as he believed the MMPI could be improved by using material appropriate to the normal population. Subsequently, these changes sparked various new formats that allowed for respondents to provide more detailed answers to questions, such as the projective and performance tests. Later concepts of personality measurement included Eysenck’s fourfold personality table, Cattell’s sixteen -factor system, Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale and Thomas and Chess’ temperament tests, which measure personality directly following birth. Many solutions have been devised in measuring personality over the course of time. The evolution of personality testing has contributed to the thorough understanding that specialists have about the subject, and how to treat those whose troublesome personalities get in the way of their quality of life.