Chapter Nine: The Behaviorists
Chapter nine introduces its readers to three behaviorists: Thorndike, Pavlov, and Waston. Each man had significant scientific contributions that change science for the better. Thorndike studied chickens when he first began his research to ascertain whether they can navigate their way through a maze. The study was successful, so he then went on the study cats to see if they can escape boxes constructed into mazes. This study was so successful that Thorndike's work was published in a few publications. His research leads to two theories: Law of Effect and Law of Exercise. Pavlov conducted research using dogs to study the brain reflexes and salivating responses of dogs. His research lead to conditioned and unconditioned responses in the subject being study. He won the Nobel Prize in medicine in the year 1904 and in 1907 he reached the highest level of prestige when he became a member of the Academy of Science in Russia. And lastly, Waston did his research in Chicago at the University of Chicago. He did his doctorial studies researching the brian functions of rats to ascertain whether they can navigate their way through mazes. Waston quickly rose through the ranks of academia until he landed as chair of psychology at John Hopkins University. Waston would manipulate different regions of the rat's brains and sensory organs to see if it had any impact on the rats as they went through the mazes.
Purpose - the author's purpose is to inform its readers about three exceptional behavioralists and their accomplishments which had a major impact on the science community.
Information - the author uses the research and studies conducted by Thorndike, Pavlov, and Waston to show the connection between their work in the late 1800s and the early 1900s to the research and studies conducted today.
Concepts - the key concepts the author uses are starting with the upbringing of each man, followed by their educational background, and then their outstanding research and studies which lead to breakthroughs in science.