Communication according to the text is “the process of sending and receiving a signal of some sort”
It does not have to be intentional
Nor does it need to invoke much cognitive functions in order to explain the change in behavior, as the result of communication.
But in order to communicate there much first be a language to communicate.
Language is a special form of communication with key features such as; symbols, syntax and semantics that distinguish it from other communicational forms.
Symbols are cues that are used to represent some experience or object that can then be shared with someone else. Ex: images (shapes and figures), Sign language and the letter of the alphabet.
Syntax is the system of grammatical rules by which symbols are arranged, as well as how those symbols can be modified or interacted with one another. Ex: using specific words as a noun or a verb; while knowing the difference between them and when and where to use them properly.
Semantics are the meanings associated with the symbols. This meaning allows us to refer to things that aren’t currently visible or tangible. Ex: talking about an idea, like “Truth”; this action is lacking real physical form.
Powell, R., Honey, P., Symbaluk, D. (2013). Introduction to learning and behavior. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.