Parenting styles play an important role in shaping a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. While effective parenting can create positive outcomes, it is also important to acknowledge and understand the negative effects of noneffective parenting styles. A peer-reviewed study conducted by Darling and Steinberg (1993) titled "Parenting Style as Context: An Integrative Model" provides insight into the impact of noneffective parenting styles on child development. The study examined three main parenting styles: authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful.
Authoritarian parenting is characterized by strict rules, high demands, and little room for flexibility or open communication. The study revealed that children raised by authoritarian parents often experience lower self-esteem, decreased autonomy, and reduced problem-solving abilities. Permissive parenting involves an overly lenient approach, with few or no rules or boundaries set for the child. The study found that children raised in permissive environments tend to struggle with self-discipline, impulse control, and delayed gratification. Neglectful parenting is characterized by a lack of emotional involvement, inconsistent attention, and limited support. The study revealed that children raised in neglectful environments often experience difficulties in emotional regulation, attachment, and forming healthy relationships.
The study recommends adopting an authoritative approach as the best parenting style. It is characterized by a balance of warmth, responsiveness, and appropriate boundaries; parents can create a nurturing environment that promotes positive child development. Noneffective parenting styles can significantly impact a child's development, influencing their emotional well-being, behavior, and overall life outcomes. It is crucial for parents to be aware of their parenting style and its potential consequences.
Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3), 487-496. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.113.3.487