In Chapter 3 we discussed Elicit Behaviors, Simple Mechanisms of Learning, and Classical Conditioning. An elicit behavior is one that is automatically drawn out by a certain stimuli. A reflex is the most basic form of these. Several noteworthy reflexes are the Startle Response, a defensive reaction to a sudden unexpected stimulus, and the orienting response, when we automatically position ourselves to facilitate attending to a stimulus (turning around when something taps your shoulder). A good example of these reflexes is demonstrated in the video at this link.
Simple Mechanisms of learning that I found most interesting were Habituation and Sensitization.
Habituation is a decrease in strength of an elicited behavior following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus. The best example I can think of in my everyday life is when I drive by the gas pumps. The price at the pumps would be the stimulus and the behavior was a knee jerk reaction, then you get used to it. Eventually, dishabituation ensues. Dishabituation is a return of the habituated response following the presentation of a seemingly irrelevant stimulus. The irrelevant stimulus in my continuing example is when gas goes down 2 cents. Its really irrelevant, because then you realize that it costs $66 dollars to fill our tank instead of $67.
Sensitization is the opposite, its an increase in the strength of an elicit behavior following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus. The following video is a good example of sensitization